You say you want to set up a household along the lines of the traditional Welsh household, but you don't know how? Well, my experience has shown me that such an effort can be very interesting and very educational. Four years ago, as I contemplated the formation of my own household, the fact that my persona is that of a ninth century Welshman meant that it was natural for me to turn to the Welsh for my household structure. Thus, I set out upon the task of defining exactly how the Welsh would have done it.
In my research, I have drawn very heavily upon the laws of Hywel Dda, and with these laws as my foundation, along with additional research into the literature of Wales, I have identified two models upon which we can draw from in regards to traditional household organization. One of these models, that of the King and his Court, is very structured and fairly well documented, while the other, that of the Pencenedl, or Chief of Kin, and his clan, is much simpler and suffers from a general lack of documented information.
Discussion of Sources
When looking at these models, it is important to keep in mind that the time period you are interested in will affect how you implement your organization. Throughout the middle ages, Wales was exposed to tremendous pressure from those cultures which surrounded it. With the retreat of the Romans, the barbarians began a concerted attack upon the Welsh, both militarily and culturally. Having been strongly influenced by the Roman occupation, the Welsh were then exposed to the successive invasions of the Saxons, the Vikings, and finally the Normans, each of which left their mark upon the Welsh. Of course, trying to determine exactly how these other cultures effected that of the Welsh and how those embattled people changed through time can be a bit of a problem which can only be resolved by a lifetime of study and research. The only way to approach a solution to this problem is to examine and compare the different documents which have come down to us from those days long past, which again presents its own problem.
Most of the documentation which is available to us today has been dated to no earlier than the twelfth century, with most of the really useful stuff dating to a century or two after that. Despite this, it is believed that much of the information contained within those documents is much older. An example of this is the 'Laws of Hywel Dda', the original codification being attributed to one of the more successful Welsh Princes from the early to mid tenth century, but there are no surviving manuscripts from that time period, and it is certain that the laws were modified later to reflect the changes which were occurring in Welsh society. The earliest manuscripts of these laws has been dated to the mid-thirteenth century and of the nearly forty manuscripts which survived into the twentieth century, there exists some variation in the laws presented. A number of studies done on the topic of Welsh Medieval Law have identified a core of laws which can be considered standard throughout the period. It is from these laws, the Laws of Hywel Dda, that we can draw our two models for the traditional Welsh household.
Before we get to the two models, lets look at a few aspects of the social structure and stratification within the Welsh culture, and how they might apply to an SCA household.
Social Structure and Stratification"The Welsh value distinguished birth and noble descent more than anything else in the world. They would rather marry into a noble family than into a rich one."
- - Gerald of Wales, 'The Description of Wales' 1193
- Translated by Lewis Thorpe, 1978
The SCA has developed its own social structure and, in some ways, its own class system, but does this mean that we can't gain something by looking at how the Welsh social structure worked? No, it doesn't, but it does mean that some things we find will be less useful than others. As an example, all SCA folk are assumed to be at least minor nobility, or so I have always been told, so applying the status of an alltud or aillt, for which you will find the definitions below, is not a good idea, unless of course you happen to know someone who specifically wants to recreate that aspect of the middle ages. In my household, though I am the only full Welshman, I treat the Irish woman, the Scotsman, the French woman, and the Welsh/Irish mix as free Welsh folk, at least for the purposes of household organization. With that said, let us now take a quick, and very abbreviated look at the social structure and stratification of period Welsh society.
As already stated above, the people of Wales had suffered under the successive invasions of the Romans, Saxons, Vikings, and Normans, but through each invasion, the Welsh managed to maintain their own identity, and even after the Edwardian Conquest, while suffering under the norman yoke, Welsh Civil Law persisted until the Acts of Union issued by Henry VIII in 1536. From the earliest times well into the later Middle Ages, the Welsh were a tribal society as well as a very status conscious one. This is clearly evident throughout the Laws and early Welsh literature. In the writings of Giraldus Cambrensis, called Gerald of Wales and a contemporary of Henry II of England, we find a description of the the common Welshman as being able to 'readily recite from memory the list of their grandfathers, great-grandfathers, great-great-grandfathers, back to the sixth or seventh generation . . .', showing an intense interest in their own lineage. Gerald continues by stating that they 'persecute their living brothers until they bring about their death; but when their brothers die, especially if someone else happens to have killed them, they will move heaven and earth to avenge them.'. This demonstrates that, though the Welsh may not have respected the individuals who were their kin, they had a strong sense of family, however extended, to the extent that often an insult given several generations past could still be the cause of great conflict.
The further importance of kinship is demonstrated by how 'galanas', or the 'murder fee', was collected and distributed, but the accounting of and subsequent distribution of the full value of galanas does get very confusing. In the event that one Welshman had killed another in a dispute, and assuming they both lived within the same cantref but were not related, the Welshman who was guilty of the murder would be liable for the galanas. For collection purposes, one third of the required galanas would be collected from the immediate family of the guilty person, the dept being apportioned in thirds with one third being paid by the guilty person himself. The other two thirds, of the first third, go to the mother and father as one and to the brothers and sisters as one. The last two thirds of the full value was collected from the 'kindred', two thirds to the fathers kin and one third to the mothers. For the purposes of this discussion, 'kindred' is defined as all relatives to the seventh degree, thus, all cousins to the fifth cousin are due to pay their share. If the tables were turned, and we were distributing the galanas, it would be distributed in the same proportions to the same degree. Thus it was very important to know who your kin were, and who they weren't.
The Laws of Hywel provide a number of good examples of the Welshman's preoccupation with status and social standing and how this standing was in later years dependent upon the land one held. The best example of this is the Welsh 'sarhaed', or 'insult fee'. As stated in the Laws, the King of Aberfraw, while holding only one cantref, would have a sarhaed of '100 cows with one red-eared bull for every 100 cows, a rod of gold as tall as himself and as thick as his little finger, and a plate of gold as broad as his face and as thick as the nail of a ploughman who has been a ploughman seven years'. That same king, if he managed to extend his holdings to an additional cantref, would find that his legal sarhaed and galanas had doubled. In the 'Four Branches of the Mabinogi', the first four stories contained in 'The Mabinogion', Pwyll, King of Dyfed, is described as the king of seven cantrefs. His son, Pryderi, who extended his holding by adding seven additional cantrefs, for a total of fourteen, would be accounted greater than his father.
The laws and customs of Wales recognized several classes of people, each with their own rights and duties, and the status within each class varied, and though it was not common to be elevated from one class to another, especially from an unfree class to the free classes, it was not impossible. The status you held passed to you through your father alone, though if a Welsh woman was given to an alien (i.e., a non-Welshman), her sons could claim the status of the mothers kin by 'mother-right'. In this fashion, a son could hold clientship over his father. The four major divisions which I have identified within the Welsh culture were the Alltud, Aillt, Bonheddig, and Uchelwr.
Alltud - The alltud was an alien. An individual from a land outside of Wales. An alltud held no status of his own but could find protection, and status, under an uchelwr. He was free to move as he saw fit, as were his descendents, and find another uchelwr to provide protection, possibly improving his status as he did, but after the fourth generation of the alltud's descendents with the same uchelwr, those descendents become eilltion and could no longer leave without permission. Hywel's Laws imply that, though Gwynedd, Powys, and Deheubarth were all part of Wales, natives from each one were considered aliens to the other two.
Aillt (Pl. eilltion)- The aillt was an unfree Welshman. He was also called a villein or taeog and occupied a position similar to that of the english villein. There is some evidence that this title did not originally imply one of unfree status, but instead implied a relationship of 'client' or one who was simply under the 'protection and authority' of another. An aillt was excluded from becoming either a priest, a smith, or a bard, unless he had permission from the Uchelwr for whom he was a client.
Bonheddig - The bonheddig was a Welshman of full free status and full Welsh descent. In modern Welsh, this has come to mean the same as 'gentleman'. Some claim that an earlier meaning was simply that the Welshman's lineage was known. If you take this, in conjunction with the statement above concerning the aillt and its possible original meaning, it is possible that this term originally included those of the 'lesser' stock, and that the meaning evolved to that used in the Laws as the Welsh continued their constant battle to retain their independence. The bonheddig could travel as he saw fit and could take up any profession he wished. In SCA terms, it is safe to say that all folk are at least bonheddig.
Uchelwr - An Uchelwr was a bonheddig who had received his patrimony, that is to say, that he had received his inheritance of land from his father as well as the various clientships held by the father. The title was used whether the uchelwr held a single toft or several cantrefs and was much more common in south Wales, where Gerald of Wales says they were 'in constant rebellion, . .'. Uchelwr has strong connotations tying it to the nobility of the Welsh, often being used as a synonym for 'Breyr', and as 'Breyr' has been accepted by the SCA CoA as an alternate title for 'Baron', Uchelwr should not be used indiscriminately as a title within the Society. It is used within this article to draw parallels between historical practice and Society adaptation.
The King and His Court
The two models I have identified for application to the SCA Household are the King and his Court, and the Chief-of-Kin and his Kinsmen. The first model is supported by much documentation and is characterized by a strong status consciousness, as well as a strong sense of definition in each participants role within the organization. This model has a number of players which are more or less adaptable to the SCA Household and can be organized along the lines of a fighting household, or as one dedicated to other more artistic or service oriented goals, as suits the organizer. As such, this model works very well when the head of the SCA household is a Peer. The King and Queen, as household heads, the Edling, or heir, the Officers of the Court and other administrators, and finally the teulu, or Household Troops, all played their part in the traditional Welsh household. Below is a simple explanation of each person's role and how they might be adapted and applied to the traditional SCA household.
King - Historically, the kings in Wales differ from what we expect when we think of the kings of other countries, primarily because there were so many of them. The King was first and foremost an uchelwr, though an uchelwr of greater status than most, drawing his status from the land he held personally and that land over which he held sway through the various clientships he held, and there were no laws concerning how many commotes or cantrefs he might hold. In theory, all uchelwyr, whether holding a single commote or several cantrefs, were of equal status and therefor kings, but circumstances of economics, politics, and bloodlines led to differing personal worth. For the purposes of this article, I will use the title 'King', though that title is not appropriate for use in the SCA. Other terms which may be used are 'Arglwydd' and 'Breyr', but as the SCA CoA has approved these as alternate titles for the AoA and Baronage, whether territorial or court, you might refrain from using either unless you have been awarded with such. The place held by the King in this model is represented within the SCA household by the Head of Household.
Queen - Women in Wales were, in many ways, better off than in many other countries, though by todays standards, they were still in the dark-ages. The status a woman held was dependent upon the status of her husband or, if she were unmarried, her father. A woman married to the King would be Queen, with all rights of a woman in marriage, and little additional else. The Queen did receive a portion of all goods that came to the King, and also received the amobr, a fee which was originally paid when a woman lost her virginity but eventually became a simple marriage fee, from the women in the King's domain. Just as the King has his Officers of the Court, so to is the queen entitled to her own officers. In this model, the Queen plays the role of the Head of Household within the SCA.
Edling - The Welsh Laws give two meanings to this title. The first is 'heir to the King', especially as an individual designated by the king to inherit his titles and lands. This is a much narrower meaning than is meant by the anglo-saxon (AS) word 'aetheling', from which it derives. The AS word has the meaning 'a close relative of the king', which matches the second meaning given by Hywel's Laws, which state that any of the King's 'sons and his nephews and his male first cousins' were called edlings. Until the time of Llewelyn ap Iorworth, when a Welshman died, all of his sons, legitimate or otherwise, split his lands and property evenly between themselves. It was with Llewelyn that we find primogeniture, or the practice of the elder legitimate son inheriting the titles and land, began to slowly be adopted among the Welsh, and so we find the word edling taking on the narrower meaning. If we use the broader meaning as given in the laws and implied by the AS word 'aetheling', we can conclude that, for a household modeled on an earlier period than Llewelyn, there would be no real designation of an heir, therefore no need for an Edling. If, on the other hand, the household is being organized post Llewelyn, the Edling could be designated as heir, though since this is only a game and there being little to inherit, the Edling becomes something of an esthetic element to our game. As an example of how one might use the Edling, one Knight in Trimaris, who is Welsh and has a loosely organized Welsh household, has designated one of his squires as his Edling. This has caused him some consternation and much enjoyment as the battle between the Welsh and the Norman personas in the kingdom heated up. Specifically, his heir was taken hostage by a certain Trimarian King of Norman/Irish descent, to ensure the Knight's good behavior of course, and the Edling was not returned until the end of the reign. (The Knight's Squire greatly enjoyed being held hostage by the Royal Household and was very sorry to be given back in the end.)
Cynghellor (Pl. Cynghellorion) - The Cynghellorion were the administrative leaders of the Kings lands. It was the Cynghellor's responsibility to organize the daily operations of the Kings lands and to order and conduct all business in the King's name. This officer is not to be confused with the Household Steward who served as chief among the Kings officials at court. Often the Cynghellor was assisted by the Maer. In some ways, this officer serves as the Welsh equivalent to the SCA's Autocrat, thus he could serve as chief logistics officer for the household and could act as chief organizer for the household encampment at camping events such as Pennsic. This position could be long term, or reassigned on an event by event basis.
Maer (Pl. Meiri) - Equivalent to the English Reeve. The meiri performed functions very similar to the cynghellorion, with both positions quite often being occupied at the same time. The Maer held a position of lesser status than the Cynghellor, but is otherwise indistinguishable from him.
Officers of the Court - By Welsh law, there are a total of 24 officers of the court, 16 for the King and 8 for the Queen. Some of these have obvious corresponding positions within an SCA household, such as the Captain of the Household (Penteulu) and the Steward of the Household while others are just as obviously obsolete for most groups. Though these officers may hold positions which might otherwise seem beneath the nobility, such as the Chief Groom or the Doorkeeper, the laws as well as Welsh literature of the time shows that each position was held by a free Welshman. Hywel's Laws state that each of these officers, save the Penteulu, were entitled to hold their land free, making them bonheddig, or free Welshmen, and many of the the officers were also entitled to their horse as well as many other rights and privileges. Several tales from the Mabinogion, including that of 'Culhwch and Olwen' to name one, gives several examples of members of the Teulu, or household guard, who also served as officers of the court, and who, when called upon, fought with the rest of the household to overcome the enemy. The really tough question is which officers to include in the household? The easiest answer is to play it by ear. If you have a household member who enjoys the bardic arts, assign them as Bardd Teulu. If one of the household members has a religious persona, perchance they would be interested in holding the position of Household Priest? Basically, fit the offices to the people in the household. Other offices, such as the Household Steward could be filled on an as needed basis. (See Chyngellorion above) The Kings officers are as follows; the Captain of the Household, Household Priest, Steward, Chief Falconer, Court Judge, Chief Groom, Chamberlain, Household Bard, Usher, Chief Huntsman, Mead-Brewer, Physician, Butler, Doorkeeper, Cook, and finally the Candleman. The Queens officers are as follows; the Queens Steward, Priest, Chief Groom, Chamberlain, Handmaid, Doorkeeper, Cook, and Candleman. More information concerning these officers may be found in the Welsh Laws books, including the responsibilities of each officer and what they are owed in return by the king and queen.
Additional Officers - Besides the 24 Officers of the court, there are eleven additional officers accorded a place in the household by Welsh law, each with their own applicability to the SCA Household. These officers are the Groom of the Rein, Footholder, Dung Maer, Serjeant, Porter, Watchman, Fueller, Bakeress, Court Smith, Launderess, and finally, the Pencerdd, or 'Chief of Song'. Again, fit the offices to the household members.
Teulu - The actual meaning of this word, in period, seems to have been the 'Bodyguard' or 'Household Troops'. When used in combination with other titles, such as Penteulu or Bardd teulu, both mentioned above, meaning the Captain of the Household and the Bard of the Household respectively, it may be used to describe members of the King's entourage. Historically, the teulu would be composed of sons, nephews, and cousins, as well as many non-related bonheddig, all of which had one thing in common. None of the teulu had yet received their patrimony. Belonging to a mighty chieftains bodyguard would give an otherwise unsupported bonheddig the station and standing to carry him until his father died and he received his own toft of land. Within the Society, the word teulu describes, especially for the more Martial SCA households, the fighters who have chosen and fight under the Household's standard. As noted before, members of the teulu may be assigned other positions as officers of the court or other household or land administrators.
The Pencenedl and his Kinsmen
The elements in the model of the King and his Court are well documented so lots of fun can be had in recreating those aspects of Welsh custom, but what, if anything, is known about the Chief of Kin? I mean, isn't that the same thing as the King? At first, you might think so, but in Hywel's Laws, the Chief of Kin, or Pencenedl, is strikingly different from the 'King' of Welsh history. Just as the King may rule over anything from a single commote to several cantrefs, there seems to be no firm definition as to the size of the Pencenedl's kindred. How many generations back was kinship measured? How many kinfolk did the he represent? The literature which has come to us from medieval Wales speaks little of the Chief of Kin. In fact, much of the literature makes references which lead me to believe that the Welsh used the title 'Chief', much like we us 'm'Lord' or 'm'Lady'. In the early poem by Aneirin, called 'Y Gododdin', many of the heroes were called 'chieftains', though the term Pencenedl was not specifically used. In the story of 'Culhwch and Olwen', Arthur greats Culhwch as a chieftain, though within the text of the story, it is apparent that Arthur has no specific knowledge of the youth's identity. This general lack of information about the Pencenedl and what role he played in medieval Wales is not helped by the fact that there seems to have been no detailed study done, to date, into that aspect of Welsh custom and society. In the final analysis, it is difficult to say exactly who the Pencenedl was, and what role he played. All that I have found so far, is taken directly out of the 'Laws'.
Who was the Pencenedl?- The Pencenedl was specifically excluded from holding certain positions in a Kings court. Specifically, the Laws state that it was not right for the Pencenedl to be either Cynghellor or Maer, either of which would come from the Uchelwr of the land. This in turn can imply that the Pencenedl was not an Uchelwr, but this is not the case for the laws identify the galanas of the Uchelwr, 'if he is Chief of Kindred', as five hundred sixty seven kine. The Pencenedl did hold the same status as the Cynghellor, which is implied by the fact that Hywel's Laws claim the amobr, or marriage fee, of the Chief's daughter is the same as the amobr for the Cynghellor's daughter. The laws also state that there was no mother right to the office of the Pencenedl, which means that to be eligible, one must be descended through the fathers line to the common ancestor. One of the many things the Laws do not cover is how the Chief of Kin was determined, stating only that the ebediw, or 'succession fee', was paid by the incoming Chief of Kin, ostensibly to the King. The law also states that the title was not hereditary, though in the later part of the High Middle Ages some did claim the title by right of inheritance.
The Role of the Pencenedl - Again, there is little known about the role played by the Pencenedl save what is discussed in Hywel's Laws. It seems that the primary role of the Pencenedl, was to assist in the adjudication of entry into kinship. The Chief of Kin received twenty four pence from each man who took a kinswoman to wife, and twenty four pence for each boy he took into the cenedl, or kinship. In other matters the Chief of Kin could intercede as the need arose. As an example, if a son claimed kinship with his fathers kin, and if the father had died and could not deny or confirm, the Chief of Kin and six others could deny the kinship. If the Chief were not present, it would require twenty one men of the kindred to deny him. Likewise, the Chief can confirm the kinship with six others and if the he were not present it would take twenty one kinsman to confirm. Little else is covered within the Laws of Hywel Dda.
The Role of the Kindred - In some ways, this is toughest part of the model to define, for it is not covered at all in Hywel's Laws as a separate entity from the rest of society. Rights and privileges existed between kinfolk to varying degrees, depending upon the degree of kinship. Basically, the Kindred seems to have simply existed within the structure of, and was integral to, the rest of Welsh society.
The Pencenedl and his Kin within the SCA - How may we adapt the concept of the Pencenedl and his Kindred to the SCA Household? Surprisingly, this model requires very little to adapt to our situation, and in fact, this is the model I used as a guide when organizing my household. Some of the features which attracted me was the lack of required status within the kinship. In all of the information I found, there is no specific reference to status within the clan, save that which is dependent upon the degree of kinship, which suits me and my friends just fine. Each member of the household is assumed to be of the same degree of kinship, and therefore has the same rank and standing within the clan. We make no real attempt to weave our personas together, though that too may be done, but then you may end up having to explain how a French woman from the twelfth century is related to a Welshman from the ninth. As Pencenedl, it is my responsibility to make the final decision concerning household membership, though prospective members may be, and are, proposed by any household member. As members of the clan, my household members strive to re-create their personas as best they can. They receive full support from the other household members in these efforts. Beyond that, the Kindred exists within the structure provided by the SCA. Simple, straight forward, and not very innovative. What is new, to my mind, is the models inherent Welshness.
Lets the Games Begin
But what real use is the Welsh Household to the SCA? I and my household, besides being a bunch of good friends who like to hang out together, periodically enjoy performing little vignettes based upon our concept of how our personas would have behaved. One particular piece of drama we re-created was the ceremony involved in the taking of a new kinsman, in this case, the taking of a kinswoman, into the cenedl. It happened that a couple of my kinsmen, who were in-fact already married in the modern world, were going to perform a period wedding for their personas. They had done their own research into a period ceremony and had invited the cenedl, as well as many folk from our home shire, to attend. Though both had already accepted the informal invitation into the cenedl, only the husband, an eighth century Scotti, had been formally taken into the cenedl. I had not yet had a chance to formalize the relationship with the woman. The woman and I had worked out how our personas meshed, ignoring of course the time discontinuity of a century as she is an eighth century Irish woman and I am a ninth century Welshman. Without getting into the details of our persona sketches, I was the closest thing to a relative of her persona, both of us having been raised together in Powys, Wales. As her only male relative, sort of, I was 'giving' her away in the wedding ceremony. This presented a prime opportunity to perform the appropriate ceremony to take her into the cenedl, as well as make for a very memorable night for her. After consulting with her husband and husband to be, both of course being the same person, all arrangements were made. When it came time for me to 'give' the bride away, I remained silent. After a very pregnant silence, about ten seconds, and seeing the lady begin to fidget, I stepped forward and, interrupting the marriage ceremony, declared that I had a very important piece of business which could not wait. The priest gave way and allowed me to take the floor. What followed was essentially a ceremony stipulated by Hywel's Laws as I called forth the cenedl and had brought before us a reliquary holding a thread from the robe of Garmon Sant, that's Saint Germain, the patron saint of Powys. I then asked Aislinn to kneel before me and declared to all; 'Aislinn has been as a sister to me and therefor do I as chief-of-kin, before this holy relic of Garmon Sant, and before God himself, claim her as sister of the blood, and therefore kinswoman'. I then asked for, and received, the concurrence of six kinsman. I lifted Aislinn to her feet and proffered the kiss of a kinsman, and then passed her to the rest of the cenedl for their kiss of kinship, bringing the ceremony to a close. At this point, I turned to the priest and stated that 'as all due ceremony had been satisfied, and the woman Aislinn was of the cenedl, and I being Pencenedl, I stand forth to give the woman Aislinn in marriage to the man Fearadhach', and the marriage ceremony resumed. At the revel afterwards, Aislinn could remember little of the ceremony, so surprised and flustered had she been during the event. Yes, it was a night she will remember, or rather not remember, for a long time.
We have seen two models which can be used to organize a Welsh household within the SCA, but it is important to keep two things in mind. First, remember that the SCA is presented as an educational organization, an so we should take every opportunity to not only learn for ourselves, and to show others what we have learned, but to also keep an open mind to the experiences and teachings of others. Finally, we don't live in the reality of medieval Wales, but rather in the Current Middle Ages of the SCA, so many things won't work as they did in period. The best we can hope for is too find out what works for us, what fits in with our version of the game, and most importantly, what enhances our enjoyment of that game, and then try to mesh that into the existing culture and structure of the SCA. If we can do this, then I feel that we have succeeded. Both Models presented above provide ample opportunities for the enhancement and enjoyment of the educational experience within the SCA. No matter which model we choose, or what we choose to do with it, whether it be the taking in of a new household member, the SCA, or real, wedding of friends, or simply the enjoyment of the atmosphere we create, the Welshness of our household adds to our game, and, after all, despite all of the hard work we put into this and the educational opportunities we get out of it, this is still a game.
"Hywel Dda, The Law", Dafydd Jenkins, The Welsh Classics v. 2, Gomer Press, Llandysul, Dyfed, 1986
"Aneirin: Y Gododdin", A. O. H. Jarmon, The Welsh Classics v. 3, Gomer Press, Llandysul, Dyfed, 1988
"The Mabinogion", Translated by Gwyn Jones and Thomas Jones, Guernsey Press Co Ltd, London, 1974 Edition
"Gerald of Wales: The Journey Through Wales / The Description of Wales", Translated by Lewis Thorpe, Penguin Books, New York, New York, 1978
"An Introduction to the History of Wales: Vol I, Prehistoric Times to 1063 A.D.", A. H. Williams, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1962
"An Introduction to the History of Wales: Vol II, The Middle Ages Part I,1063-1284", A. H. Williams, University of Wales Press, Cardiff, 1962
"Y Geiriadur Mawr: The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary", Christopher Davies, Gomer Press, Llandysul, Dyfed, 1989 Edition